International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry (ISSN: 2231-3443)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications in all aspects&nbsp; of pure and applied chemistry including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology and genetics, inorganic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of solids, liquids, polymers and interfaces between different phases, neurochemistry, nuclear chemistry, modern transmutation, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, phytochemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular and macromolecular chemistry, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, spectroscopy, astrochemistry and cosmochemistry, quantum chemistry and theoretical chemistry, sonochemistry, agrochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, chemical engineering, chemical biology, chemo-informatics, electrochemistry, femtochemistry, geochemistry, green chemistry, histochemistry, immunochemistry, marine chemistry,&nbsp; mechanochemistry, nanotechnology, natural product chemistry, oenology, petrochemistry, pharmacology, photochemistry, radiochemistry, synthetic chemistry, kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions, thermochemistry, chemistry in industry and interactions between chemistry and environment.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry) (International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Sat, 25 Jul 2020 09:25:45 +0000 OJS 60 Sensory Profiling of Pulpy Fruits Based Ready to Reconstitute Little Millet Smoothies <p>Convenience foods are the now a big trend in the food business. The Indian ready to eat (RTE), ready to cook (RTC) and ready to serve (RTS) food segments have emerged from its early days of being a fringe alternative to home cooked meals or eating out. The underutilised little millet like other nutricereals is nutritionally superior to regularly consumed cereals. Malting of little millet enhances the digestibility, reduces the antinutritional components and can provide appropriate food-based strategy to derive nutrients maximally. Hence, a ready to reconstitute (RTR) smoothie mix was developed with a malted little millet that promotes the incorporation of nourishing drinks in daily diet. The suitability of mix to blend with fruit pulps <em>viz</em>. banana, papaya and pineapple in 1:1 and 1:2 ratio was assessed for its sensory parameters. The results revealed that the best scores for sensory attributes were for 1:1 blend except for appearance. Further, the overall acceptability scores of banana, papaya and pineapple smoothies on a hedonic scale of 9.0 were 8.37±0.09, 8.17±0.07 and 8.27±0.08 respectively indicating that the evaluated pulpy fruits were suitable for preparation of RTR smoothies.</p> B. Neeharika, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari, M. Tejashree ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Carbon Sequestration Potential of Oil Palm Plantations in Tamil Nadu Regimes, India <p>Oil palm (<em>Elaeis guineensis</em>), being a potential carbon sequestering perennial crop by biological means, has helped in mitigating global warming and climatic fluctuations. In our study, we selected Tenera hybrids in three oil palm plantations of major oil palm growing regions of Theni and Thanjavur districts of Tamil Nadu, India during the year 2019. Carbon sequestration potential was assessed by the standard procedures and methodology. The present study revealed that carbon sequestration was higher in trunks, which was found to be 2.57 t C/ha (tons of carbon per hectare) in 4 years, 22.33 t C/ha in 8 years and 59.79 t C/ha in 15 years with respect to the age of plantation. The roots sequestered carbon for about 0.67 t C/ha in 4 years, 5.80 t C/ha in 8 years and 15.54 t C/ha in 15 years old plantations and the fronds sequesters about 1.41 t C/ha in 4 years, 2.44 t C/ha in 8 years and 3.01 t C/ha in 15 years old oil palm plantations. The findings&nbsp; evidenced that the biomass production in oil palm increased proportionally with different age group of oil palm. This findings established the importance of oil palm plantation for&nbsp; carbon sequestration to reduce natural as well as anthropogenic sources for climatic fluctuations.</p> S. S. Rakesh, V. Davamani, Sara P. B. Kamaludeen, S. Maragatham, A. Lakshmanan, E. Parameswari, M. Velmurugan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Levels of Coconut Shell Biochar and Farm Yard Manure on Soil Properties under Upland Rice Cultivation <p>An field experiment were conducted at ZAHRS, UAHS, Shivamogga, during summer 2018 to know the effect of biochar and Farm Yard Manure (FYM) on soil properties. The experiment was planned in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 16 treatments consisting of four levels of biochar at 2, 4, 6 and 8 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and two levels of FYM at 5 and 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> which were applied alone and in combinations. The recommended dose of fertilizer was applied commonly to all the treatments with three replications. The result revealed that combined application of 8 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>biochar + 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> FYM with Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF) (100:50:50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) to soil significantly decreased the soil Bulk density (1.30%) and Permanent wilting point (2.13%) and increased the soil porosity (50.94%), Maximum water holding capacity (37.30%), Field capacity (19.71%) and water stable aggregates (67.40%) as compared to initial soil properties of experimental site. Significantly increased the soil pH (initial acidic (5.88) to neutral at harvest (7.05)), Electrical Conductivity (EC) (0.37 dS m<sup>-1</sup>), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) (17.86 [cmol (p<sup>+</sup> kg<sup>-1</sup>)]), available Nitrogen (340.24 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Phosphorus (79.54 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Potassium (252.46 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and Sulfur (13.55 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>). Soil Diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) extractable micronutrients, soil enzymes and microbial biomass compared to absolute control and RDF alone treatments.</p> B. R. Arunkumar, G. N. Thippeshappa, Basavarajappa H. Bhogi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Screening, Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Cinnamon verum Bark <p>cinnamon dating from 1000 AD when it was firstly recorded in English due to its important as aroma and as herbs. The aim of this study was to investigate phytochemicals constitutes, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of commercial samples of <em>Cinnamon verum </em>bark. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, while the crude extracts were prepared by three different solvents methanol (70%), acetone and aqueous. Phytochemical screening of crude extracts was performed using standard methods. The essential oil was subjected to GC-MS analysis and tested against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eschericchia coli </em>and <em>Candida albicans</em>. The obtained results indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarin, tannins, terpenoids, saponin, glycoside, anthrocyanin and phenolic compounds in the methanolic, aqoueous and acetone extracts of <em>C. verum </em>bark; while the major components of the extracted essential oil of <em>C. verum</em> bark were cinnamaldehyde (85.50%), stigmasterol (3.69%), Cadinene (1.37%), (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.35%), alpha-amorphene (1.33%), hydrocinnamaldehyde (1.28%), alpha-cubebene (1.25) and ergosterol (1.09%) respectively. The antimicrobial activity result indicated the high activity of the extracted essential oil against all tested microorganisms at high concentration; except in <em>S. typhimurium </em>and <em>C. albicans </em>at concentrations of 25% and 12.5% no activity was noticed. Based in our obtained results the essential oil of <em>C. verum</em> bark had high potential as antimicrobial agent, therefore, recommended for more advanced studies to be conducted on this abundant plant as natural source of antibiotics.</p> Hamza Mohamed Ahmed, Ashraf Mahmoud Ramadhani, Ibrahim Yaagoub Erwa, Omer Adam Omer Ishag, Mohamed Bosharh Saeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Green Tamarind Extract Catalyzed Synthesis of 4-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives and Their In-vitro Antimicrobial Activity <p>In several organic synthesis and chemical transformations, the use of green chemistry has decreased the reaction time and chemical waste. Due to the tremendous advantages of green chemistry, the paper presents the synthesis of benzylidene derivatives of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole by reacting it with various substituted aldehydes/benzaldehydes using different catalytic amount(ln mL) of tamarind extract/glacial acetic acid as a catalyst by conventional and microwave method.&nbsp; All the synthesized compounds (<strong>1-7)</strong> were characterized using spectroscopic techniques <em>viz</em>. UV, IR, and <sup>1</sup>H NMR. Antimicrobial activity of all the compounds was done using negative gram bacteria <em>i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella </em>sp., and <em>Enterobacter </em>sp. against standard Ampicillin. Compound <strong>2 </strong>containing 4-nitro substitution increased the antimicrobial activity as compared to other <em>Enterobacter </em>sp, but none of them showed better <em>In-vitro </em>antimicrobial potential than standard ampicillin. All the synthesized Schiff bases differed significantly from one another within the range of test concentrations.</p> Diksha Verma, Sunita Sharma, Tanvi Sahni, Geetika Arora ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 29 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Studies on Storage Quality Evaluation of Dried Wild Pomegranate Arils (Anardana) Prepared in Mechanical Cabinet Drier <p>Wild pomegranate (<em>Punica granatum</em> L.), fruit is widely found in hilly slopes of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Jammu and Kashmir. It contains higher amount of acid content along with other quality characteristics. To exploit the appreciable amount of acid content in this fruit, a popular dried product known as <em>anardana </em>was prepared in mechanical cabinet drier from the fruits procured from Karsog area of Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India (1265 m above mean sea level). The <em>anardana </em>was packed in aluminium laminated pouch with vacuum (ALPV), aluminium laminated pouch (ALP) and gunny bags which were stored under ambient and refrigerated storage conditions so as to study the effect of packaging and storage on its quality. During storage, moisture, water activity, reducing sugars, NEB (Non enzymatic browning), HMF (Hydroxymethyl furfural) and furfural content increased whereas, TSS (Total soluble solids), titratable acidity, total sugars, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, starch, total fibre and residual SO<sub>2</sub> decreased during storage. After 12 months of storage period, higher retention of various quality characteristics was observed in <em>anardana </em>packed in ALPV followed by ALP and gunny bags. However, changes were slower in refrigerated storage conditions as compared to that under ambient conditions.</p> Abhimanyu Thakur, N. S. Thakur, .` Hamid, Pradeep Kumar, Sunakshi Gautam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mapping of Soil Micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) in the Transition Zone of Northwestern Foothill of Shivaliks of Kathua District Using GIS <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To analyze and map the soil micronutrient status in the transition zone of NW foothills of Shivaliks of Kathua Region using GIS.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Composite surface soil samples from two hundred and six (206) locations distributed randomly due to undulated topography across the whole of the district were collected at the depth of 0-15 cms using global positioning system (GPS). Inverse distance weighting (IDW) technique was adopted to generate prediction maps of the soil properties. The process of digitization and generation of maps was carried out with ArcGIS 10.3.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After soil sample analysis, the available copper content in the soil of hilly areas varies from 0.4 to 14.4 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> with a mean value of 3.75 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. Available Zinc content ranged from 0.25 to 5.60 mg/kg respectively. The available Manganese content of the surface soils varied between 5.60 to 78.10 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> with a mean value of 23.97 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. Available Iron content ranged from 11.30 to 92.00 mg/kg with a mean value of 38.57 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. The available copper content in the soil of plain areas varies from 2.08 to 34.90 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> with a mean value of 8.94 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. The minimum and maximum values of available copper content lies in higher range. Available Zinc content ranged from 0.25 to 5.60 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> respectively. According to the map, available zinc is visualized lowest in plains due to raised soil pH. The available manganese content of the surface soils varied between 2.500 to 57.40 mg/kg with a mean value of 27.03 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. Available Iron content ranged from 0 to 66.10 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> with a mean value of 41.68 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The mapping was done successfully with micronutrients varying from low to high range. The technique was found to be effective in identifying the micronutrients availability throughout the study region, thereby helping policy makers to frame fertilizer distribution and application policy for future.</p> Vishaw Vikas, K. R. Sharma, Vikas Sharma, Vivak M. Arya, Rajeev Bharat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Recent Status of Global Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination <p>Organic pollutants are continuously disrupting the equilibrium of nature. Polychlorinated Biphenyls are a member of the broad family of man-made organic chemicals well-known as chlorinated hydrocarbons. Due to their chemical stability, high boiling point and electrical insulating properties, non-flammability, Polychlorinated Biphenyls are used in various commercial as well as industrial applications. Polychlorinated Biphenyls residues remain in the ecosystem and bioaccumulate in various organisms due to their persistent nature and resistance against natural breakdown agents. This leads to the enlisting of approximately 209 chlorinated congeners in the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Their residues have been detected in various environmental components even though their production has been banned for more than a decade. High residues of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in water bodies, aquatic faunas, soils and sediments, air, and biota samples have been reported. Therefore, the current review aims at depicting the source and dynamics of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the environment as well as the exploitation of various detection tools for the analysis of Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Besides, it provides a critical description of worldwide contamination scenarios of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and the need for further advancement in the detection and extensive identification.</p> Anirban Sil, Mainak Barman, Saipayan Ghosh, Kaushik Pramanik, Sourav Sen, Kunal Saha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Methodologies of Removal of Dyes from Wastewater: A Review <p>Dyes have been used in several industries, like paper-making, textiles, plastic, leather tanning, cosmetic and foods industries since Eighteenth century. Effluents containing dyes reduce the penetration of sunlight into natural bodies of water, thus leading to a decrease of both photosynthetic activity and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The presence of dyes in watercourses is both aesthetically unacceptable and also toxic to aquatic ecosystem and human health. The effluent treatment technologies being used now a days for removal of dyes from wastewater includes coagulation, biological methods, adsorption, advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, electrochemical methods, nano technology etc. In this review, extensive information is presented with regard to different techniques adopted for dyes removal from the available literature.</p> S. Sophie Beulah, K. Muthukumaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nutrient Budgeting of Primary Nutrients and Their Use Efficiency in India <p>The imbalanced use of fertilizers in India is evident from the fact that the current ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in agricultural soil in several states is skewed towards nitrogen. This imbalance causes problems, right from stagnating or declining productivity to soil sickness, widespread deficiency of macro nutrients and micronutrients, and soil alkalinity and salinity. Eventually, it results in reduced efficiency of fertilisers, low yields and low profitability for farmers. Also, nitrogen pollution of surface and groundwater due to excessive fertiliser use has reached alarming levels in several states. Chemical fertilizers are currently the major emitters of nitrous oxide gas, a potent greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Nutrient budget is an important tool to provide an early indication of potential problems arising from nutrient surplus and nutrient deficit. Balanced use of all types of fertilizers, including traditional organic manures and biofertilizers are needed to bring about a change in the prevailing regime that encourages excessive use of chemical fertilizers. However, meeting future food security targets in an over-populated developing country like India, needs to increase the nutrient use efficiency. This ultimately leads to site-specific need-based nutrient application and minimizing nutrient losses from fields. This leads to the 4R Nutrient Stewardship concept, applying the Right Source of nutrients, at the Right Rate, at the Right Time and in the Right Place. This paper provides a historical overview of the nutrient budgeting efforts and systematically reviews major challenges, opportunities, in defining, quantifying, and applying nutrient budgets and improving nutrient use efficiency.</p> Gayatri Sahu, Shreya Das, Samanyita Mohanty ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000