Contour Farming Improves Soil Moisture and Dry Land Crop Productivity on Rainfed Alfisols

Main Article Content

A. V. Ramanjaneyulu
N. Sainath
D. Sravanthi
M. Venkata Ramana

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2019 on Alfisols to find out the impact of intercropping and contour farming on total system productivity and soil moisture, under rainfed conditions. The results revealed that intercropping of mung bean with pigeon pea (MB+PP 4:1) was found to be highly productive and economical than corn+ pigeon pea (C+PP 4:1). Further, contour farming (CF) gave higher corn equivalent yield (CEY) and conserved more moisture than up down farming (UDF). The combination of MB+PP and CF has significantly out yielded (8019 kg ha-1) the MB+PP under UDF (6612 kg ha-1), C+PP under CF (4026 kg ha-1) and C+PP under UDF (3393 kg ha-1) in terms of CEY. Further, MB+PP and CF association recorded higher soil moisture, nutrient uptake, partial factor productivity (PPFN: 253.4 kg kg-1), agronomic efficiency of applied N (AEN: 46.79 kg kg-1) and rainfall use efficiency (RUE: 12.2 kg ha mm-1) besides higher net returns (Rs. 82608 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.41).

Keywords:
Contour farming, moisture, rainfed crops, intercropping.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ramanjaneyulu, A. V., Sainath, N., Sravanthi, D., & Ramana, M. V. (2020). Contour Farming Improves Soil Moisture and Dry Land Crop Productivity on Rainfed Alfisols. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 21(21), 60-69. https://doi.org/10.9734/irjpac/2020/v21i2130290
Section
Original Research Article

References

WWDR3. Water in a changing world. World water development report, facts and figures; 2009.

FAOSTAT. accessed November 2005. Available: http://faostat.fao.org/last

MoA. Appeal to international community for mitigating the impact of drought on farmers (2007-2008). Ministry of Agriculture. Government of India; 2008.

FAO. Coping with water scarcity in agriculture a global framework for action in a changing climate. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. 6459EN/1/11.16; 2016.

Qin W, Hu C, Oenema O. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: A meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, Nature; 2015.

Dehkordi DK. The effects of superabsorbent polymers on soils and plants. Pertanika. J. Tropical Agricultural Sciences. 2016;39(3):267-298.

Krishna A, Ramanjaneyulu AV. Impact of land configuration, life saving irrigation and intercropping on yield and economics of major rainfed crops in Southern Telangana Zone of Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Bio-resources and Stress Management. 2012;3(3):317- 323.

Ramanjaneyulu AV, Neelima TL, Nagesh Kumar MV, Sreenivas A. Drought mitigation in rainfed castor through farm pond technology. In: Souvenir and Extended summaries of National Seminar on Strategic interventions to enhance oilseeds production in India at DRMR, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. 2015;163-164.

Cohen MJ, Brown MT, Shepherd KD. Estimating the environmental costs of soil erosion at multiple scales in Kenya using emergy synthesis. Agricultural Ecosystem and Environment. 2006;114:249– 269.

Maglinao AR, Hashim. Management of sloping uplands for sustainable agriculture in Southeast Asia. Soil Management Abstracts, Bangkok, Thailand, IBSRAM. 1993;5(4):111-127.

Vlack CHV, Clapp LE. Contour farming for soil and water conservation. Bulletin P.: Bulletin P11, Article 1. 1940;1. Available:http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/bulletinp/vol1/iss11/1

Liu QJ, Zhang HY, An J, Wu YZ. Soil erosion processes on row side slopes within contour ridging systems. Catena. 2014;115:11-18.

Ma Q, Yu X, Lu G, Liu Q. 2010. Comparative study on dissolved N and P loss and eutrophication risk in runoff water in contour and down-slope. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 2010; 8(3-4):1042-1048.

Anonymous. Conservation practice standard for contour farming (Acre), Code 330, USDA-National Resources Conservation Service; 2008.

Farahani SS, Soheili FF, Asoodar MA. Effects of contour farming on runoff and soil erosion reduction: A Review Study. Agriculture. 2016;101:44089- 44093.

Traore KB, Gigou S, Coulibaly H, Doumbia MD. Contoured ridge-tillage increases cereal yields and carbon sequestration, In 13th International Soil Conservation Organization Conference: Conserving Soil and Water for Society: Sharing Solutions; 2004.

Rio Grande do Sul. Secretaria da agricultura. manual de Conservação do Solo. 3rd updated ed. Porto Alegre. 1985; 287.

Dobermann AR. Nitrogen use efficiency – state of the art. Agronomy –Faculty Publications. 2005;316. Available:http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/agronomyfacpub/316

Garrity DP. Contour farming based on natural vegetative strips: Expanding the scope for increased food crop production on sloping lands in Asia. Environment, Development and Sustainability. © 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. 1999;1:323–336,

Quinton JN, Catt JA. The effects of minimal tillage and contour cultivation on surface runoff, soil loss and crop yield in the long-term Woburn erosion reference experiment on sandy soil at Woburn, England. Soil Use and Management. 2004;20:343-349. DOI: 10.1079/SUM2004267

Nandhini UD, Latha KR. Yield and biological potential indices of Cajanus cajan + Vigna radiata intercropping under different cropping geometries. Agriculture for Sustainable Development. 2014;2(2): 169-171.