International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry 2020-04-09T11:01:22+00:00 International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry (ISSN: 2231-3443)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications in all aspects&nbsp; of pure and applied chemistry including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology and genetics, inorganic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of solids, liquids, polymers and interfaces between different phases, neurochemistry, nuclear chemistry, modern transmutation, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, phytochemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular and macromolecular chemistry, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, spectroscopy, astrochemistry and cosmochemistry, quantum chemistry and theoretical chemistry, sonochemistry, agrochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, chemical engineering, chemical biology, chemo-informatics, electrochemistry, femtochemistry, geochemistry, green chemistry, histochemistry, immunochemistry, marine chemistry,&nbsp; mechanochemistry, nanotechnology, natural product chemistry, oenology, petrochemistry, pharmacology, photochemistry, radiochemistry, synthetic chemistry, kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions, thermochemistry, chemistry in industry and interactions between chemistry and environment.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Antioxidant Activities of Extracts from Celery Leaves (Apium Graveolens L) Grown in Jos, Nigeria 2020-04-09T11:01:22+00:00 M. Suleman Stephen E. A. Adelakun J. H. Kanus Meshack M. Gideon <p>The presence of natural antioxidant in plants is well known. Plant phenolics constitute one of the major groups of components that act as antioxidant and free radical terminator. Hence, this study focused on investigating the antioxidant activity of Celery plant (<em>Apium graveolens L</em>). The fresh leaves were collected, crushed and extracted with ethanol and acetone by maceration. The radical scavenging properties of the extracts were determined by measuring changes in absorbance of DPPH radical at a wave lenght of 517 nm by UV and ascorbic acid is used as the standard. It showed that the crude ethanolic extract has higher antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid and acetone extract with less scavenging activity. The values were (IC<sub>50</sub> 114.6 µg/mL) for ascorbic acid, (IC<sub>50</sub> 112 µg/mL) for the crude ethanolic extract and (IC<sub>50</sub>172 µg/mL) for crude acetone extract. The result shows that Celery plant grown in Jos possess good antioxidant properties which may be linked to the presence of phenolics and flavonoids in the plant, which justifies its use as a medicinal plant. This can be further investigated for the isolation and identification of active compounds of medicinal utilities.</p> 2020-03-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Extracting and Studying the Factors Affecting the Tanning Material in the Garad Pods 2020-04-09T11:01:21+00:00 Egbal Eltom Gurashi Abdalla <p>In this study the chemical structure of Garad tan pods (acacia – nilotica) were determined and investigated. It was found that Garad tan is a polyphenol type of structure and consequently it has an antiseptic effect, it is also used as pretaning and retaning agent.</p> <p>Garad pods need to be disintegrated and ground into fine grains of very small diameter. In its powder form it cannot be used in tannage as the grains may block the sewage, hence, it has to be leached, concentrated and spray dried.</p> <p><strong>The factors that affect leaching of the tannins from Garad pods were studied, there are: </strong>Temperature, solvent to solid ratio, degree of mixing and time were specified and factorial experiments were designed to study the effect and significance of these factors. The levels of these factors were (30 and 50°C), (1:5 and 1:7), (with and without) mixing and (25 and 50) minutes respectively. All these factors were found to be very significant.</p> <p><strong>Having determined the optimum factors their levels trials were carried out at the following levels: </strong></p> <p><strong>Temperature:</strong> 50°C</p> <p><strong>Solid to solvent ratio:</strong> 1:7</p> <p><strong>Degree of mixing:</strong> With mixing</p> <p><strong>Time:</strong> 50 minutes</p> <p>The trials made at these conditions were found to be efficient with high yield of the extract. The extract produced was concentration which makes it ready for use in pertannage or retannage or for spray drying to powder.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-04-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relative Change in Yields and Nutrient Uptake of Black Gram under Different Doses and Sources of Boron 2020-04-07T10:49:41+00:00 Rahul Kumar Sweeti Kumari Shweta Shambhabhi Rashmi Priyadarshi Shabana . <p>The present study “Relative changes in Boron fractions in black gram rhizosphere” was contemplated with two objectives: 1) To find out the suitable source, dose and method of boron for black gram and 2) To study the changes in relative boron fractionation under black gram rhizosphere. To achieve the present objectives a field experiment was conducted with Greek gram var. IPU2-43 in factorial randomized block design with three sources, four doses and two methods of application of boron replicated thrice at Bihar Agricultural College Farm of BAU, Sabour during the year 2018-19. Three sources were: S<sub>1</sub>: Borax, S<sub>2</sub>: Solubor and S<sub>3</sub>: Boric acid; Doses: D<sub>1</sub>: 0.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, D<sub>2</sub>: 1.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, D<sub>3</sub>: 1.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, D<sub>4</sub>: 2.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>and methods: Soil and foliar application. Based on the findings of field experiment it can be concluded that the application of 1.5 kg B ha<sup>-1</sup> (D<sub>3</sub>) registered maximum seed yield of (8.27 q ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield of (10.04 q ha<sup>-1</sup>), nutrient uptake by grain (12.64 g ha<sup>-1</sup>) and nutrient uptake by straw (16.95 g ha<sup>-1</sup>) which was statistically at par with the application of 2.0 kg B ha<sup>-1</sup> (D<sub>4</sub>) and was found to be statistically superior over rest of the doses. Among the sources, the maximum seed yield (7.96 q ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (9.53 qha<sup>-1</sup>), nutrient uptake by grain (12.42 gha<sup>-1</sup>) and nutrient uptake by straw (16.36 gha<sup>-1</sup>)was found to be highest under the plots receiving 1.5 kg B ha<sup>-1 </sup>through foliar application of Solubor (S<sub>2</sub>) and the lowest grain yield (7.88 qha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (9.36 q ha<sup>-1</sup>),nutrient uptake by grain (11.85 gha<sup>-1</sup>) and nutrient uptake by straw (15.60 gha<sup>-1</sup>)was recorded from 0.5 kg B ha<sup>-1</sup>(D<sub>1</sub>) which was found statistical inferior over rest of the boron doses. Foliar application resulted in a better yield of straw as compared to soil application.</p> 2020-04-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis, Anti-microbial, Flameretardance and Anti-corrosive Activity of Some New Heterocycles Incorporating Coumarin moiety 2020-04-08T12:47:45+00:00 S. M. Mohamed Nadia T. A. Dawoud N. Abd El-Khalik Wafaa. M. Mazen Z. I. El Bailey <p>In the present study a series of novel heterocyclic compounds (<strong>2-16</strong>) incorporating coumarin moiety was synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds were elucidated on the basis of elemental analysis, spectral data, were tested for <em>in-vitro</em> antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (Gram-positive bacteria), <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em> (Gram-negative bacteria) and <em>Candida albicans</em>, <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em> (fungi).</p> <p>Coumarin derivatives <strong>(</strong><strong>1,6,16)</strong> were chosen to evaluate the anti-corrosion, flame retardant properties. The results clearly showed that, the incorporation of coumarin derivatives into epoxy coating have led to improve the flame residency, corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties of investigated coating and confirmed that these new developed varnishes have an excellent properties as flame resistance and anticorrosive for mild steel.</p> 2020-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##